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Geology is an applied science, dealing with the study of the origin and evolution of the structure of our planet. Geologists examine the physical properties of the Earth to understand its history, predict natural/man-made disasters, find out about past and current climate patterns, and explore renewable and non-renewable resources. Geological findings are applied to the fields of remote sensing, resource mapping, computer simulations, and recycling technology.

Career Opportunities in Geology

  • Marine Geology
    It is a broad domain associated with the study of the ocean floor. It draws from a wide number of fields including geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology and paleontology to make investigations about the ocean floor and the coastal zone.
  • Petrologist
    It is the scientific study of the composition, texture, and structure of rocks It deals with their occurrence and distribution as a result of geologic processes and physicochemical conditions.
  • Mineralogist
    It involves the physical and chemical analysis and classification of minerals, mineral deposits, and precious stones. This work aids in the classification of land for residential, industrial and agricultural use.
  • Geohydrologist
    This field deals with the assessment and analysis of water sources, identification of water pollution threats, and providing advice for construction of water reservoirs.
  • Hydrologist
    This field is concerned with the study of the properties of water. Hydrologists identify and analyze water sources to meet the needs of present and future generations. Their work is specially important in India, with the scarcity of water resources.
  • Paleontologist
    The field deals with the study of fossils found in geological formations, in order to trace the evolution of animal and plant life, and makes estimates about their age.
  • Seismologist
    It involves locating earthquakes and earthquake faults using geological data. Seismologists engage in in-depth study of earthquakes and the structure of the earth.

How to Pursue a Career in Geology

Stream Graduation After Graduation After Post Graduation
Path 1
Clear Class XII in Science streamPursue B.Sc. Geology for 3 yearsPursue M.Sc. Geology/ Applied Geology/ M.Tech Geophysics for 2 yearsPh.D. for 2-3 years
Path 2
Clear Class XII in Science Stream Pursue Integrated graduation and post-graduation courses M.Sc. Geophysics/ Applied Geology/ M.Tech. Geology for 5 years-Ph.D. for 2-3 years

Important Facts

  • Most college have eligibility criteria of minimum 50% aggregate marks in Class XII with Science Stream.
  • Science is a mandatory subject in Class XII.
  • Geology has specialisation in varieties of disciplines like pedology, volcanology, metamorphic petrology, geochemistry and geophysics.

Leading Institutes

Top Geology Institutes in India
College Location Website
Hans Raj College New Delhi
Ram Lal Anand College New Delhi
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Indian Institute of technology Kharagpur
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
St. Xavier's College (University of Bombay) Mumbai
Department of Earth Sciences (Annamalai University) Tamil Nadu
Post-Graduate College of Science (Osmania University) Hyderabad
SVU college of Sciences (Sri Venkateshwara University) Tirupathi
Indian School of Mines Jharkhand
Department of Geology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi
Department of Geology (Kurukshetra University) Kurukshetra
Department of Geology (SavitribaiPhule Pune University) Pune
Top Geology Institutes in the World
Institution Location Website
ETH Zurich Switzerland
University of California, Berkeley United States
Harvard University United States
University of Oxford United Kingdom
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) United States
University of Cambridge United Kingdom
California Institute of Technology (Caltech) United States
Columbia University United States
Stanford University United States
Australian National University Australia
University of Bristol United Kingdom
University of Toronto Canada

Geology Entrance Exams

College Tentative Date Important Elements Website
JEE Main April Physics, Chemistry, Maths
JEE Advanced May Physics, Chemistry, Maths
Institution Tentative Date Important Elements Website
Graduate Aptitude Test of Engineering (GATE) January - February Subject-specific topics
OUCET May Subject-specific topics
SVUCET May Subject-specific topics
ISM EE May Subject-specific topics
BHU PET June Subject-specific topics

Work Description

  • Collect information in the field, from seismic data and other sources
  • Monitor the acquisition of data to ensure consistent quality
  • Interpret data to determine sub-surface geology and the economic importance of natural resources
  • Develop geological models of the earth's sub-surface to understand the geological structure, rock characteristics and the likely distribution of oil/gas/mineral-bearing strata
  • Assess the potential quality of minerals and hydrocarbon resources
  • Collaborate with drilling engineers at drilling sites on the basis of the interpretation of the data and models developed
  • Produce and present geological maps and reports
  • Perform detailed geological risk analysis of proposed exploration targets
  • Plan and undertake an exploration drilling programme after collecting and interpreting all available data

Pros & Cons of a Career in Geology

  • It gives you chance to explore and travel to new places.
  • It is a dynamic career, with many new and different types of experiences.
  • The work is stimulating for those interested in environmental and earth research.
  • The work can often stretch to long hours.
  • A major portion of work requires being in the field, even in harsh weather, which can be strenuous.
  • Field work requires one to report on earthquakes, disaster-hit locations etc., which can be dangerous.
  • The seats and opportunities for this career are limited.
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