Choosing a stream of subjects for Class 11 and 12 is the first of many big career decisions you will be making in your life. After having studied a variety of subjects for your entire school career, the time has come to select a specific stream that suits your interests, capabilities and career goals.
Even if you haven’t identified any particular career goal so far, don’t worry, there is still plenty of time to explore. Selecting a stream is comparatively easier than selecting a career, but making a careful choice is still important as your stream can impact your choice of courses in the future..
There are 3 main streams available after Class 10: Science, Commerce, and Humanities/Art. Each stream has a distinct methodology, choice of subjects, and career options. While the science subjects are based on the theory and application of scientific concepts, commerce is focused on trade and business, and humanities is based on the social sciences and human impact..
Before understanding the subjects in the science stream, let us first understand who should choose science and what are the connected career opportunities.
Recommended Read: Stream Selection in Class 11: A Detailed Look Into All 3 Streams
Why choose the science stream?
The science stream offers an enticing path of exploration and discovery, unveiling the intricacies of the natural world and the human body. It fuels curiosity, challenges the intellect, and inspires innovation. By pursuing the science stream, you embark on a thrilling adventure where you become a detective, unraveling the mysteries of atoms, life, and the cosmos. It equips you with practical skills to address global challenges and make a tangible impact on society. The science stream is not just about achievements and contributions; it cultivates resilience, critical thinking, and a relentless pursuit of truth. It opens the door to a world of possibilities, where you can satisfy your innate curiosity and shape a future fueled by the transformative power of science.
So, dare to step into this exhilarating journey, where the wonders of the universe await your exploration. Embrace the opportunity to unravel nature’s secrets, make groundbreaking discoveries, and leave a lasting imprint on the world. The science stream invites you to unleash your potential, push the boundaries of knowledge, and make your mark in the captivating realm of science.
Opportunities with Science Subjects In India
In a land where ancient wisdom and modern advancements coexist, India stands as a testament to the awe-inspiring scope of science subjects. From the intricate teachings of Aryabhata to the groundbreaking discoveries of C.V. Raman, this diverse nation has fostered a rich legacy of scientific exploration that spans millennia. Today, as India surges forward on the global stage, the scope of science subjects in this vibrant country has evolved into a tapestry of innovation, research, and transformative possibilities. ·
- Thriving Research and Development: India’s scientific research and development environment is strong, with several world-class institutes and labs advancing knowledge. Rising scientists may strengthen their talents at prominent IITs and CSIR facilities.
- Expanding Fields of Study: The breadth of science subjects in India grows across numerous fields, providing ambitious scientists like you with a diverse selection of alternatives. There are several chances in physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, astronomy, environmental sciences, and even developing fields such as artificial intelligence and nanotechnology.
- World-Class Educational Institutions: India has world-class universities and scientific programs. IISERs, AIIMS, and TIFR are known for their academic rigour and cutting-edge research facilities.
- Growing scientific and Technology sector: India’s scientific and technology sector is thriving, providing several job prospects for young scientists. Biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, information technology, space research, renewable energy, and telecommunications are all looking for skilled people to drive innovation and create revolutionary discoveries.
- Government Initiatives and Funding: The Indian government puts a high value on scientific research and development. Initiatives such as “Make in India,” “Digital India,” and “Atmanirbhar Bharat” seek to promote indigenous scientific and technical progress. To assist students seeking higher study in the science subject, generous financing programmes, fellowships, and scholarships are available.
- International Collaborations and Exchanges: Collaboration and the sharing of ideas are critical for scientific development in an interconnected world. India frequently engages in worldwide scientific collaborations and partnerships, allowing new scientists to collaborate with world-renowned academics. This encounter broadens their perspectives and improves their learning experience.
- Real-Life influence: Making a real-life influence on society is one of the most satisfying elements of studying sciences in India. You may help humanity by discovering new medical cures, solving environmental problems, or improving technology.
- Inspiring Role Models: India is proud of its rich scientific history and the accomplishments of many brilliant scientists. Their remarkable experiences and successes serve as beacons of inspiration for young scientists, encouraging them to dream big and pursue their passions with zeal.
India’s scope of sciences radiates immense potential and a relentless spirit of inquiry. From ancient wisdom to modern innovation, it has left an indelible mark on human knowledge. With a commitment to education, research, and technology, India’s future in the scientific realm appears boundless. The true power lies in its people—brilliant scientists, researchers, and students—unraveling the world’s complexities.
Science Stream Subjects after Class 10th
The science stream is further divided into 2 branches: Physics+Chemistry+Biology ( PCB) and Physics+Chemistry+Mathematics (PCM).
The difference between the two lies in the choice of the third subject. While Physics and Chemistry are compulsory for both, one combination offers Biology as the 3rd compulsory subject, and the other offers Mathematics. English is compulsory to all streams and you can then choose from various optional subjects offered by your school to meet a total of 5 subjects.
Here is a detailed look into the compulsory science stream subjects.
Physics is among the oldest academic fields in the world and is the science of matter, motion, energy, and force. It focuses on understanding how the universe behaves. Advances in the field of physics enable advancements in technologies, such as the study of electromagnetism, thermodynamics, mechanics, nuclear physics, and solid-state physics.
Studying physics at Class 11-12 levels will help you develop observational, analytical, investigatory, and decision-making skills, along with conceptual understanding, creative thinking, and problem-solving skills.
Topics in physics:
Units and measurements: Introduction to the International System of Units (SI), measurements, and dimensional analysis are covered in Units and Measurements.
Kinematics: Understanding the kinematics of objects travelling in a straight line, including concepts of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and graphical motion analysis.
Laws of motion: Newton’s laws of motion, force, momentum, and friction are all studied in this course.
Work, Energy, and Power: Investigating the notions of work, energy, and power, as well as their interrelationships.
System of particles and rotational motion: Understanding the dynamics of a particle system, rotational motion, and moment of inertia.
Gravitation: The study of gravity’s universal rule, gravitational potential, and satellite motion.
Mechanical characteristics of Solids and Fluids: Investigating the mechanical characteristics of solids, such as elasticity and stress-strain connections, as well as fluid behavior and fluid mechanics concepts.
Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, thermodynamic rules, and thermal equilibrium.
Kinetic Theory of Gases: Investigating gas behavior using kinetic theory, gas laws, and kinetic molecular theory.
Oscillations and waves: The study of simple harmonic motion, oscillations, wave properties, and wave optics.
Electric Charges and Fields: Learn about electric charges, Coulomb’s law, electric fields, and Gauss’ law. Exploration of topics such as electric current, resistance, Ohm’s law, and electrical circuits.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism: The study of magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, and material magnetic characteristics.
Light: Exploring the properties and features of electromagnetic waves, such as light and its spectrum.
After studying physics there are a variety of career options available, including working as a physicist, astronaut, data scientist, researcher/scientist, and engineer to name a few.
Read more: Career In Physics In India
Everything in the universe is made out of atoms and matter, and the study of Chemistry is based on the study of the composition, properties, and structure of matter, including atomic structure and the changes influenced by chemical reactions. Chemistry contributes a major part in the development of scientific research across the globe
New areas in chemistry, such as synthetic materials, natural resources, biomolecules, and industrial chemistry are also included in the course at the Class 11-12 level, ensuring that you get a thorough understanding of Chemistry fundamentals and contemporary developments. Practical lab experiments further serve to support your theoretical studies.
Topics in Chemistry:
In the 11th-class chemistry curriculum, students usually learn a variety of core subjects that form the groundwork for higher-level courses. Some of the important subjects in 11th-grade chemistry include:
Introduction to the basic ideas of chemistry, including matter, atoms, molecules, elements, compounds, and chemical processes.
Atomic Structure: Understanding the structure of atoms, electron configuration, the periodic table, and the link between atomic structure and chemical characteristics.
Chemical Bonding and molecule Structure: Investigating many forms of chemical bonding, such as ionic, covalent, and metallic bonding, as well as comprehending molecule structures and their effect on chemical behaviour.
States of Matter: The study of the characteristics and behaviour of various states of matter, such as gases, liquids, and solids, as well as phase transformations and intermolecular forces.
Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry: Learn how to create and balance chemical equations, compute stoichiometric ratios, and comprehend the quantitative aspects of chemical processes.
Chemical Thermodynamics: Investigating energy changes in chemical processes, thermodynamic concepts, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy.
Solutions: Understanding the behaviour of solutions, variables influencing solubility, concentration units, colligative qualities, and the idea of pH and acidity.
Chemical Kinetics: Chemical kinetics is the study of the rate of chemical reactions, variables influencing reaction rates, rate laws, and reaction processes.
Equilibrium: Exploration of the notion of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle, and acid-base equilibrium.
Redox processes: Understanding oxidation-reduction processes, balancing redox equations, and electrochemical cells.
These subjects give a solid foundation in chemistry and prepare the way for future study in the field.
Career options after studying chemistry include working in research, pharmaceuticals, healthcare as lab scientists, chemical engineers, biochemists, flavour chemists, analytical chemists, etc.
Recommended Read: Chemistry Vs. Chemical Engineering: How Do the Two Fields Differ?
The term ‘Biology’ is derived from the Greek language, with ‘bios’ meaning life and ‘logos’ meaning study, literally translating into the study of life forms. And that’s exactly what biology is. Biology studies living organisms – plants and animals – including facets such as their physical structures, physiological mechanisms, chemical processes, molecular interactions, and development and evolution.
The Biology at the Class 11-12 level focuses on providing a firm conceptual basis while also connecting the study of the subject with real-life technology, environment, agriculture, health, and industry.
Topics in Biology:
The Living World: An introduction to the variety of life, categorization systems, and living creature features.
Biological Classification: Investigating the division of organisms into kingdoms such as Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
Plant Kingdom: The study of plant variety, morphology, anatomy, and reproductive methods.
Animal Kingdom: Understanding the variety, organisation, and adaptability of animals throughout many phyla.
Flowering Plant Morphology: The study of the surface and internal structures of flowering plants, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits.
Anatomy of Flowering Plants: The study of plant tissues, tissue systems, and internal structures.
Cell: Studying the structural and functional characteristics of cells, as well as cell theory, cell division, and cellular organelles.
Biomolecules: Understanding the structure, functions, and characteristics of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Cell Cycle and Cell Division: Investigating the cell cycle, mitosis, and meiosis, as well as their roles in growth, reproduction, and inheritance.
Transport in plants: The study of the transfer of water, minerals, and nutrients in plants through the vascular tissues.
Mineral nutrition: Mineral nutrition is the study of the necessary mineral elements needed for plant development, as well as their absorption and function in metabolism.
Photosynthesis: Investigating the photosynthesis process, including light and dark responses, variables controlling photosynthesis, and its importance in the environment.
Plant Respiration: Researching the process of plant respiration, including aerobic and anaerobic respiration, as well as the role of energy release.
Plant growth and development: Understanding the processes and variables that influence plant development, plant hormones, and reactions to environmental stimuli.
Digestion and Absorption: Investigating the digestive system’s structure and activities, digestion, absorption, and the involvement of enzymes.
Breathing and Gas Exchange: The study of the respiratory system, breathing mechanics, and gas exchange in humans.
Neural control and coordination: Understanding the neurological system, nerve impulses, reflex behaviours, and coordination in animals referred to as neural control and coordination.
Human reproduction: Exploration of the reproductive system, reproductive organs, fertilisation, development, and birth in humans.
Career opportunities after studying Biology are immense, including the most popular path of Medicine, whether MBBS or Ayurveda or Homeopathy. Apart from medicine, you can pursue a variety of career paths such as biotechnology, dentistry, veterinary sciences, pharmaceuticals, botany, zoology, marine biology, genetics, bioinformatics, microbiology and more.
Recommended Read: Planning to Choose PCMB After Class 10? Consider these 6 Things First
Mathematics is a science of numbers with applications in money transactions,architecture, art, engineering, and sports. As a subject, Math focuses on the concepts of quantity, change, structure, and space.
At a Class 11-12 level, you will learn about the principles of underlying processes and skills, identify the flow of reason while solving a problem or proving a result, and learn how to apply acquired skills to solve problems by more than one method. If you pursue the PCB subject combination you can also take on Mathematics as an optional subject.
Topics in Maths Subject
Sets and Functions: Understanding sets, set types, set operations, relations, and functions.
Algebra: Algebraic expressions, polynomial equations, quadratic equations, complex numbers, arithmetic progression, geometric progression, and the binomial theorem.
Coordinate geometry: Cartesian coordinates, straight lines, circles, conic sections (parabola, ellipse, and hyperbola), and transformations. Understanding three-dimensional coordinates, distance and section formulae, and planes in an introduction to three-dimensional geometry.
Calculus: A survey of differential calculus, covering limits, continuity, derivatives, and applications.
Statistics and Probability: Examining the fundamentals of statistics, as well as measures of central tendency, dispersion, probability, and their applications.
Linear Inequalities: Solving and comprehending their graphical representations.
Permutations and Combinations: The study of counting, permutations, and combinations, as well as their applications.
Mathematical Induction: Understanding the concept of mathematical induction and how it may be used to prove mathematical claims.
Binomial Theorem: Understanding and applying the expansion of binomial expressions.
Exploration of arithmetic and geometric progressions, their characteristics, and the sum of terms in a series. Mathematical Reasoning entails honing logical reasoning abilities as well as comprehending mathematical assertions, truth values, and proof methodologies.
Studying Mathematics in Class 11-12 opens up a variety of career options, including those in the field of commerce and research. Career options include engineering, computer science, insurance, statistics, economics, banking, accountancy, data science and others.
Recommended Read: Love Maths? One Of These 8 Careers Could Be Perfect For You!
English is compulsory regardless of the stream. A common language medium used in offices, colleges and online courses a certain level of proficiency is always helpful.
At the Class 11-12 level, the subject focuses on enhancing reading, writing, grammar, and listening/speaking skills in English, preparing students for further studies as well as directly for the workplace.
Career options available after studying English include mass communication, journalism, teaching, public relations, content writing and publishing amongst others. The study of English will also help you in your general communication and comprehension skills which will be helpful in nearly every career where the language of communication is English.
Recommended Read: Discover Literature: All You Need to Know About Studying English Honours
Optional Subjects with Science
Apart from the 4 compulsory subjects in the Science stream (Physics, Chemistry, English and Biology/Mathematics), you are required to take on a 5th optional subject. Some schools also allow provisions to apply for a 6th subject as well, allowing you to choose 2 optional subjects.
Here are some of the optional subjects available with Science:
1. Computer Science
Computer Science has become an immensely popular choice with students and is based on a general study of computer applications, programming languages, computing logic, and networking technologies.
Recommended Read: BCA Vs. B.Tech CS Vs. B.Sc Computer Science: What are the Differences?
2. Informatics Practices
Although there are similarities with Computer Science, Informatics Practices focus more on the processing of information, computer systems, device applications, program development, and integrated device electronics.
Economics serves as a compulsory student for Commerce stream students, but it is also a popular optional subject for Science and Humanities streams. A social science, Economics studies the functioning of an economy and its basic elements, and the interaction of markets at national and international levels.
Recommended Read: What is B.A Economics All About? Career Options & Colleges
4. Engineering Drawing
Engineering Drawing or Engineering Graphics is a specialized subject that teaches the ability to convey ideas and information required for constructing or analyzing machines, structures, and systems graphically. It’s useful for engineers, architects, surveyors, and designers.
Psychology can be defined as the study of the mind, and it has gained immense popularity in the past few years. The subject of psychology examines the mental processes, behaviours, and experiences of people. At the Class 11-12 level, you would learn about the basic concepts and principles in the field, such as emotions, personality, intelligence, etc.
Recommended Read: Exhaustive Guide to Becoming a Psychologist and its Scope in India
6. Physical Education
Another popular optional subject is Physical Education, which is considered scoring and also boosts your physical activity. At the Class 11-12 level, you would learn about physiology, physical fitness, various sports, and yoga.
Recommended Read: Can You Change Your Optional Subject in CBSE Class 11 & 12?
Advantages of taking science subject:
Science stream is not just about education, it is about creating wonders and unlocking your potential. There are many advantages of taking science stream. Let us discuss few of them:
Abilities to make discoveries:
Science subjects give you the incredible ability to unravel the mysteries of the universe. Prepare yourself to immerse into a realm where you can unveil the enigmas of the natural world, ranging from the minutest particles to the immense stretches of the cosmos. One can envision possessing the means to access the concealed marvels of existence, exposing its complex workings and eliciting a sense of wonderment with each disclosure.
Acquisition of problem-solving skills:
Do you possess an inherent tendency to confront difficulties directly? The subjects offered in the science stream provide individuals with highly effective problem-solving abilities. Equipped with scientific expertise and adept critical thinking abilities, one can emerge as a heroic figure when confronted with intricate challenges. Whether it involves devising novel approaches to address worldwide challenges or solving complex mathematical problems, you will possess a formidable capability.
Unleashing of innovation:
The field of science serves as a fertile environment for fostering innovation, and academic disciplines within the scientific realm provide a means for unlocking one’s imaginative potential. Stimulate your creativity and unleash it to conceive innovative technologies, discover pioneering pharmaceuticals, and formulate transformative remedies that challenge the limits of feasibility. The field of science provides individuals with the ability to influence the course of future events and make a lasting impact on society.
Abundance of career opportunities:
Science stream subjects can serve as an ideal foundation for individuals aspiring to pursue a career that offers continuous engagement, challenges, and opportunities to remain at the forefront of progress. The range of potential career paths is vast, spanning from space exploration to pioneering life-saving treatments as a groundbreaking researcher. The field of science provides numerous opportunities for individuals to pursue exciting career trajectories that have the potential to create enduring societal effects.
Integration of Knowledge and Awe:
The discipline of science encompasses more than mere factual information and mathematical equations, as it comprises a rich tapestry interweaving both knowledge and awe-inspiring curiosity. This enables one to develop an appreciation for the complex interrelatedness of the world, establishing connections across various fields of study and uncovering the aesthetic value inherent in minutiae. Subjects in the science stream cultivate a sense of amazement and curiosity, stimulating a lasting passion for education and a desire to comprehend the remarkable complexities of our being.
Career Options after Science Stream
There are a multitude of career options available after pursuing Science stream in Class 11-12. As with all subjects, these require hard work and effort. Choosing science should be based on not only your interest but also your aptitude in these subjects.
Here are the top 20 career options that are available in science stream:
|Ph.D. in respective field
|M.D. or Ph.D. in Medicine
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Biotechnology
|Master’s in Data Science
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Environmental Science
|Ph.D. in Pharmacology
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Forensic Science
|Ph.D. in Astrophysics
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Geology
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Science Education
|Ph.D. in Genetics
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Microbiology
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Marine Biology
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Nanotechnology
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Pharmaceutical Science
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Wildlife Biology
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Biochemistry
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Science Communication
|Ph.D. in Physics
|Bachelor’s/Master’s in Food Science
** Compensations are indicative. They should not be the only measure of a career choice. Please keep in mind, these figures will change based on numerous factors such as inflation,GDP, changes in political and socio economics factors.
You should now have some clarity about subject options available. If you have doubts regarding which stream to opt for, try career counselling to help you identify the stream that is most suitable for you.
1: What is the science stream called?
A: The STEM (Scientific, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) stream is another name for the science stream.
2: What are the science stream subjects in class 11?
A: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, and Computer science are common scientific courses in class 11.
3: Which field is best in science?
A: The “best” subject of science is determined by an individual’s interests and abilities. Medicine, engineering, computer science, biotechnology, and physics are all popular areas.
4: Which stream is best for the future?
A: The ideal future professional path is determined by an individual’s interests, abilities, and career aspirations. Both scientific and non-science fields provide a wide range of job options.
5: Will science subjects lead to interesting career options?
A: Yes, the science stream provides a diverse variety of satisfying and well-paying job opportunities, making it an excellent alternative for anyone interested in scientific investigation and innovation.
6: Is the science stream stressful?
A: The amount of stress in the scientific stream varies depending on the individual. The tough coursework might be stressful, but with adequate time management and help, it is doable.
7: How many students study in the science stream?
A: The number of students enrolled in the scientific stream varies by location and educational system.
8: What is the most essential branch of science?
A: It is impossible to choose the most essential field of science since each area contributes significantly to the advancement of knowledge and the solution of real-world issues. Physics, biology, and chemistry, on the other hand, are regarded as basic fields with major effects and multidisciplinary applications.
You should also have some clarity about which career options and courses you are targeting after class 12. If you have doubts regarding which stream to opt for, try career counselling to help you identify the stream that is most suitable for you.